TLM fit

This example shows how to perform the curve-fitting via Quokka3 simulations required for the biTLM method. It thereby shows how to use the optimizer functionality of Quokka3, and how to simulate a resistance test structure.

It is well.known that for the case of full-area passivating contacts which are metallized only locally (e.g. industrial n-TOPCon cells or HJT cells), several contact resistances rather than only a single metal-semiconductor resistance matter.


This example shows how to setup a detailed skin including a transport layer to enabled the detailed MIS model in Quokka3. The detailed MIS model resolves band-bending in the c-Si wafer and direct tunneling through an insulator.

The investigated cell is the former 25.7% record cell of Fraunhofer ISE: A. Richter et al., n-Type Si solar cells with passivating electron contact: Identifying sources for efficiency limitations by wafer thickness and resistivity variation, SOLMAT 2017